Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium. The bacterium's natural habitat is brackish or saltwater. Some strains of Vibrio cholerae cause the disease cholera. Vibrio cholerae is a facultative anaerobe and has a flagellum at one cell pole as well as pili. Vibrio cholerae can undergo respiratory and fermentative metabolism. When ingested, Vibrio cholerae can cause diarrhoea and vomiting in a host within several hours to 2–3 days of ingestion. Vibrio cholerae was first isolated as the cause of cholera by Italian anatomist Filippo Pacini in 1854, but his discovery was not widely known until Robert Koch, working independently 30 years later, publicized the knowledge and the means of fighting the disease.
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